1980 Text




The ECOM as the start of the year consisted of: Patty Kurlychek-General Manager, Marty Peshka-Operations Director; Chris Watson-Program Director; Doug Maine-Business Manager; Tina Podlodowski-Director of Development; John Ramsey-Chief Engineer

Department heads included: Paul Robertson - Music Director; Joanne Bilotta - Classical Director; Sharon Burchfiel - Sales Director; Leora Sparapani - Program Guide Editor; Anne Minicozzi -Traffic Director; Lisa Nash, Andy Winters - News Directors, Dale Maine - Production Director.

The staff list, taken from the June Program Guide, consisted of Bob Ames, Mary Anderson, Lauren Aronstamm, Rich Aubin, Jeff Becker, Pat Beckford, Jeff Blanchette, Brooks Blanchard, Sharon Burchfiel, Carolyn Carlson, Michael Clare, Tina Colada, Mike Crispino, Dave Demaw, Vijay Dixit, Marissa Donza, Jim Douglas, and GM Evica. Mort Fega, Felix, Jim Fifield, Greg Fontaine, Peter Frederikson, Tom Goehring, Diane Goldsmith, Donna Goodwin, Hector Hannibal, Susan Heske, Ruth Howell, Margaret Johnson, Wayne Jones, Bill Kaplan, Dan King, Keri Kucmeroski, Martial LaRoche, Marsha Lasker, Leo Matos, Jim McGivern, Rob Meehan, Peter Michaelson, Eric Miller, Joyville Morris, John Mueter, Reynolds Onderdonk, Jackie Peart, John Ramsey, Alison Rasmussen, Brad Regaglia, Wally Remes, Mark Rinas, Maurice Robertson, Mike Rojek, Billy Samboy, Jeff Segla, Dottie Shami, TJ Smith, Gene Solon, Roger Stauss, Ken Steen, Rod Steier, Andy Taylor, Sue Terry, Joe Terzo, Craig Tryon, Vic Vince, Chris Watson, Terry Weichand, Steve Williams, Tim Wolf, Dave Yudkin, Andy Zeldin and Paul Zulpa.

The “Notes from the General Manager” article in the February Guide, Patty Kurlychek wrote about the issue of FCC deregulation, lamenting the fact that the requirements that restrict the number of commercials per hour, that require commercial stations to broadcast news and public affairs programming, and that require stations to conduct formal studies to “ascertain” the needs of their communities (so that they could air programming addressing these needs) would soon be a thing of the past.

Radio deregulation was the subject of many station meetings, and the ECOM was determined to continue WWUH’s tradition of alternative excellence.  WWUH should be a place where listeners could turn to hear programming that was truly alternative. 

The history of WWUH would not be complete without mentioning the impact that two unique books had on the future of the station. The books were “Playing In The FM Band” by Stephen Post and “Sex and Broadcasting” by Lorenzo Milam. 

John Ramsey recalled:

“Post wrote about being General Manager of WBAI in New York City during the late sixties, when Pacifica’s flagship station was in its infancy.  The passion he displayed for non-commercial radio rubbed off on many UH staffers who read it at the time.  Post believed that station managers and programmers were stewards of a frequency, and that their job was to make sure that the frequency was being used for the public good. He considered college/community radio as a huge experiment in individual expression in the pubic arena.  There was no doubt that Mr. Post was in awe of the importance and power a well run non-commercial  radio station could have in a community

  “Sex and Broadcasting” had the phrase “A Handbook for Community Radio” on its cover and it certainly served that purpose at WWUH. The author had founded many community radio stations on the west coast in the sixties, and was considered by many an expert on alternative programming. Some WWUH volunteers who had been doing what they thought were alternative shows for a number of years on WWUH were shocked to find that they only recognized a few of the “Best Alternative Recordings of All Time” listed in the book   While some of the things outlined in the book seemed outlandish, I think that everyone who read the book looked at the station and at their programs in a new light.

By the end of the year, we had to photocopy all three hundred pages of Milam’s book since the original was so worn from being passed around between staffers.  Together, these two volumes helping many volunteers realize how an alternative station really can become a major part of a community and that individual programmers could make a difference.

Keep in mind that not all members of the staff took the time to read either of these books, or agreed with the ideas expressed in these books.  There is no doubt in my mind that these books were controversial, and that they had a dramatic impact on the future of WWUH.  They were the subject of many discussions at the station since there were still some people on the staff who thought that WWUH’s primary purpose was to train students in the art of broadcasting. Others thought that WWUH should give some of the commercial stations a “run for their money” by offering the same type of programming found on the commercial stations but without any commercials.”

The station’s renewed commitment to serving the public manifested itself in part through the station’s presentation of a number of specialty show in the 8-9 pm, Monday through Friday time slot. These programs included:  Insight by Jackie Peart , Con Salsa, a Latin show with Billie Samboy, Women In Your Ear, produced by a local Women’s Collective, Sharon Burchfiel’s Artist’s Corner, Assassination Journal with George Michael Evica and Geetanjali, Indian Music with Vijay Dixit.  The drama of Sherlock Holmes rounded out the weekday evening lineup.

Community affairs programming was a priority in 1980, and an emphasis put on issues not covered by the mainstream media.

One such issue was the danger posed to all of humanity by nuclear weapons. WWUH had a long and proud history of airing programming aired at informing the public about nuclear issues, a subject that affected everyone in one way or another but that the mainstream media seemed blind to.  The syndicated series "Shadows of the Nuclear Age" was run during the fall in the noontime Public Affairs hour.  This program was acquired from the Pacifica Archive and dealt with a variety of related issues, including the Pentagon’s scramble to develop “first strike” nuclear weapon systems such as the Trident submarine and the MX missile...

          The station featured a seven days of Women's programming in July, in conjunction with the UH Woman's Collective.

The fall 12 noon - 12:30 weekday public affairs lineup was as follows:  Monday-Sherlock Holmes (syndicated from the BBC), Tuesday-"Frog Hollow Review" (a locally produced poetry show), Wednesday-Assassination Journal, Thursday-West Indian Public Affairs (locally produced), and Friday-Astrology Almanac.  The evening slots saw the addition of "Gay Spirit" on Thursday nights and a Spanish Public Affairs show called "Latin Affairs".

The ECOM met with Rob Meehan in September 1980 to discuss his ideas for a radio show.  They liked his proposal and agreed that a half hour show about Gay and Lesbian issues would make a welcome addition to the station's Public Affairs line up.

Mary Anderson, a student from the state of Maryland, became News Director, and immediately went to work building a staff for the noontime news broadcast "In The Hartford Interest".  These newscasts initially relied on the AP wire for information but as the year went on the news staff started developing sources of their own and covering local and state stories frequently ignored by Hartford’s other media outlets.

Weekend specialty shows included Poesis and Modulacao Cultural, both on Saturday afternoon.

The artists featured on the Midweek Spotlight series on the Midday Fuse show in January and February included Hartfield and the North; Sammla Mammas Manna, Pekka Pohjola, Yochk ‘o Seffer and Alan Holdsworth, Jan Akkerman, Gary Boyle and John Abercrombie.

          From the January 4, 1980 minutes: "A folk show may be substituted for FM In Bed from 6-9 am.” 

          The program “Conversations,” produced by Roger Stauss and Mike Crispino, featured interviews with guitarist Pat Metheny and Alto and Flute player Frank Strozier in February.

          Mbira, a program of world music hosted by Tim Wolk, aired on Sunday afternoons at 4:30.

          When Arista Records mailed a notice to non-commercial stations in October stating that they would be charged $300 per year for promotional copies, station management went wild!  They felt that WWUH should not have to pay since Arista, and other record labels, were getting free airplay and that once Arista got away with this, other companies would soon follow and station's like WWUH would be unable to afford to pay for records they were currently getting for free.  The ECOM saw this major threat to college radio.

Calls to Arista management were made to explain the fact that stations like WWUH would not be able to afford the cost of what amounted to a subscription for promotional copies but these calls did little to change Arista’s new policy.

The ECOM decided to discuss the situation with other stations in similar positions, and after many phone calls and networking the decision was made to "boycott" of Arista products:  As long as the company insisted to charging a fee for promotional service, the stations participating in the action would not play any Arista recordings, new or old. Husker Du, Patty Smith, Carly Simon were just a few of the artists who's music would not be heard on WWUH or any of the other dozen or so stations that were participating in the “boycott”.  WWUH got great coverage in local and national media on this boycott.  Shortly after word got out, we got a call from the Connecticut States Attorney's Office.  WWUH was advised in no uncertain terms to cease and desist.   While individuals may participate in a boycott, organizations may not join together to do so as it would be a violation of anti-trust and fair trade laws.  WWUH was told to distance itself from the boycott immediately.  It was also informed that this was a courtesy call since the Attorney General's task is to enforce these laws, not warn people about them.

General Manager Patty Kurlychek met with University General Council Charles Condon and a representative of the University's law firm about the Arista boycott situation and found out that there was nothing that WWUH could do other than back out of the boycott movement and hope that Arista wouldn’t press charges!  We then issued a statement saying that we were undertaking unilateral action only.

The unilateral action we took against Artista nevertheless worked, and they dropped their promotional service fee.

When the production studio renovation was completed in January of 1980, several weeks were spent training the staff.  The new studio was built around a sturdy wooden console topped with Formica.  Room was provided for guests, who when seated, would face the producer, facilitating an interview setting.  A stereo mixer was installed to allow up to six mikes to be used at once, and the phone system was tied into the board so that callers could be incorporated into the programming. 

Along with the FY79/80 Budget and Financial Forecast, Business Manager Doug Maine wrote:

 "Marathon '79 brought us clear evidence that we are filling a need in Hartford radio:  $22,500 in revenue.  Indeed, we have still not received our long heralded power increase.  Yet our aggregate audience demands that we continue to provide alternatives to commercial radio programming available in the region.  Just one example:  our summer remote broadcast jazz series, enhanced by equipment purchases . . . have been very warmly received by the public.

"We seek therefore to enlarge our operations, especially our commitments to Community Affairs, Jazz and Classical programming and technical excellence.  The vibrancy and responsiveness our staff and management will ensure the continued dynamic performance that has come to be expected of WWUH"

In February, the station's Marathon activities included live performances and broadcasts of Latin Jazz band Cocinado, Jazz Pianist Don Pullen, Blues artist Albert Otis and the Homewreckers and the swing sounds of Julie Bass.  David Allen (founder of Gong) was also brought to the University for a WWUH benefit.  Daevid Allen performed solo and was accompanied by tapes. His concert was very poorly attended, and the financial loss we incurred dampened the enthusiasm for doing concerts for quite a while. 

The Don Pullen concert was arranged by Sharon Birchfiel, who had submitted a successful application for a "Meet the Composer" grant. I kind of remember having a decent turnout for that one. Mr.  Pullen played solo piano, wore bells around one or both ankles for percussive effect and performed two sets of single set-long pieces,

Marathon pledges collected as of September totaled $17,101.00. 

The minutes of meetings clearly show that the ECOM was concerned about the rising cost of putting on a Marathon. Marathon ’81 was projected to be close to $5,000!  Some of the costs included T-shirt production, pledge form printing, typewriter rental, phone installation, pledge and premium postage costs and envelops.

          UH President Trachtenberg, a long time WWUH supporter, sent the station a letter in February complaining that UH was not mentioned on our T-shirts and bumper stickers.  While some members of the staff felt that the university should pay for the articles if they wanted their name on them along with “ours”, the ECOM decided that this was a reasonable request and decided to comply.

          The Annual WWUH Staff Banquet was held Friday, May 2 at Farmington Woods.  The guest speaker was Joe Celli, the director of Real Art Ways in Hartford.   During the formal part of the evening, Joe spoke for a few minutes about the importance of WWUH as an independent voice and as a station that put a priority on the art of music.  Then he put on a twenty minute solo performance for the staff, using tapes and a short wave receiver, accompanied by his voice!

Wayne Mulligan (VP WDRC) and Lee Steele (Chief Engineer, WRCH) were special guests at the event.  Wayne was there because he had arranged for the loan of the WDRC remote truck when we were fumigated out of Gengras over the summer and Lee because he was instrumental in setting up the donation of a Collins exciter to the station.  While both of these gentlemen knew that the station offered alternative programming, they weren’t quite prepared for Joe’s avant-garde performance.

Arrangements were made for local station WRCH to donate a used Collins exciter to the station.  Since the exciter unit serves as the very heart of a FM transmitter, having a second unit was a very good thing.)  This unit was sent back to Collins to be rebuilt and was used to replace the problematic Wilkinson unit which the station had purchased in 1971.  This gave us a redundancy in exciters.

          The rebuilding of the production studio was a valuable experience for the engineering staff as no one on the staff had ever built a broadcast studio before.

          When the engineering staff completed the production studio rebuild in early1980, they had a short time to relax a little before tackling the air studio renovation.  They found relaxation in the form of a live concert series that was broadcast from Bushnell Park in the summer of 1980 that featured such acts as Milt Jackson, Stephanie Grappelli, Bobby Hutchenson, Sun Ra, Sam Jones, Clifford Jordan, Maria Muldaur, Bill Hardman & Jr. Cook and Woody Shaw!  All of these concerts, which occurred on Monday and alternate Thursday nights, were broadcast live on WWUH, much to the delight of our listening audience. During intermission, the headline artist was often interviewed live from the park.

In an effort to improve the quality of the remote broadcasts over other years, discussions were held prior to the start of the season and recommendations were solicited from the staff on how to make the broadcasts better.  Just about everyone agreed that the party atmosphere at the remote site in past years detracted from the quality of the broadcast and interfered with the ability of the remote crew to do a professional job. Therefore, the ECOM set up strict guidelines for on-site volunteers, including no drinking. The station's remote staff started the season determined to produce as professionally sounding programming as possible.

          The dedicated phone lines connecting the concert site at Bushnell Park with the studio were a never-ending source of trouble during the summer.  It took a visit to the transmission department of the phone company by our engineering staff to get these problems straightened out.    

          The success of Marathon '80 meant that the air studio renovation could go ahead as planned, and an 8 channel Autogram board was ordered in early spring.   The new console would be nearly identical to the production console, making staff training easier.  Staff also planned and installed solid counters to hold the equipment, replacing the old counter work, which had seen better days.  New speakers, new phono preamps and a distribution amplifier were also purchased.    

          Since space had always been a problem in the air studio, the decision was made to remove the two walls that formed the "news booth" in the middle of the studio.  The booth was used only occasionally for news, and had become the catchall of miscellaneous junk.  Removal of the walls would mean an increase in usable studio space of approx. 40 percent, making the studio square instead of L shaped.  The university Operations and Maintenance department did the demolition job, as well as the installation of new carpet, ceiling tiles, ductwork and electrical wiring.  The four pane sound proof window from the booth was salvaged and moved in to the front wall of the air studio, allowing the operator on duty to have a view of the hall for the first time.  Operations Director Andy Winters convinced his uncle to install new carpeting on the walls for free, and fortunately the carpenter who did the production counter work for free volunteered to do the same thing in the air studio since he was a friend of engineer Paul Zulpa’s.

          All programming during the renovation was done out of the production studio.

          Air Studio construction was bogged down by delays in the work being done by the campus Operations department during the summer, and dragged into the fall semester.  Frustration with Operations reached a climax when the station received their bill for carpeting the 100 square feet of the new air studio for $4700!  A quick check revealed that this was the bill for carpeting the Suisman Lounge. 

          The station's 12th Anniversary picnic was held on July 13th, and featured live performances on the Gengras lawn by Northern Rhythms, Billy and the Buttons, The Anglion Audio Theater and the Sue Terry Jazz Band.  The entire day was broadcast live from the outside stage.

          September brought the students back to the campus, and with them several technically inclined volunteers willing to help with the Air Studio project.  Freshmen Dave Viveiros, Dave Gardiner and Dan Steeves all joined the Engineering Department, and all three were quickly put to work helping with the wiring of the new studio.  In fact, these new recruits accomplished most of the studio wiring.  Both Dave G. and Dave V. remained actively involved with the WWUH Engineering Department for over ten years.

          Work on the air studio was finally completed in early October 1980.  Staff reaction to the new studio was uniformly positive.  The new studio offered the following features:  lots of room for guests, handicapped accessibility, 3 different types of dimmable lighting, much more room for record storage, a new board, and fully documented wiring.  In addition, the fact that there was now a window from the studio that looked out at the door added a lot to the facility.

          It's interesting to note that all of the station's rock and jazz recordings could fit on a 12 by 7 foot wall in the air studio in 1980.  Our small bluegrass and urban library was housed in the production studio, and the classical records we got from WTIC were housed in a room of their own down the hall.

          Ever since the transmitter had been moved to Avon Mountain a mysterious soft whistle sound could often be heard on the air. It would could come and go, and had plagued the station for years and defied many attempts to find it.   Engineering decided to track down the cause of the noise, and after several dozen hours of troubleshooting, finally traced it to interference at the tower site from channel 3's signal which was causing interference to the first local oscillator in our STL receiver in Avon.

          The first cassette deck was installed in the air studio at the request of the staff.  This made it possible for us to play the large amount of new and local music we received on cassette.

          Wilde Wayne Jones, host of Rock and Roll Memory Machine was interviewed by Dickey Robinson on WRCQ in January.

          The Hartford Hellions offered to pay line charges in order for us to carry their games.  According to the minutes of the ECOM meeting where this was discussed, this idea was turned down by the ECOM as "not alternative".

          The station sponsored a pub night in October with Trudy Silver's jazz band.  The event was well attended by students and community members alike and netted $110 for the station.  During these pub nights, station announcers took turns making announcements from stage, and T-shirts and albums were given away.

          Community ascertainment was done during the summer for the license renewal, which was due at the Commission on December 1.  Ascertainment procedures required that volunteers make hundreds of phone calls at random to households in our listening area to ascertain the ten most pressing problems facing the community.  These surveys were required by the F.C.C., and we had to make a showing on our license renewal application describing how we were addressing the issues on the air.  The major problems identified were, in order, crime, education, and integrity in politics, housing costs and the environment.

          The University had given the station a loan in the mid 70s, to be paid back at an interest free rate of $500 a year.  The payment term was renegotiated to go through '83.

          Leora Sparapani brought lots of creativity and color to the monthly program guide during her term as Guide Editor.  The staff loved working with her since she was always willing to lend a hand with writing or layout of articles.

          Joanne Bilotta, a community volunteer, was Classical Director for the first part of the year.  Jeff Blanchette, a student of the Hartt School of Music, followed her.  Both of them worked hard coordinating the classical department, keeping the massive classical library organized, and making sure that the classical listings were submitted to the Program Guide on time each month.

"Astrology Almanac" aired for the first time in November in the Friday noon slot.  The 30-minute live show featured astrological discussions, readings and answers to telephoned-in listener questions.  Audience response was quite good, although a number of staffers questioned the validity of the program.  There were also questions about whether this show belonged in a pubic affairs slot.

          At the September 9 ECOM meeting, several staff members presented a proposal to combine the "Midday Fuse" and "Afternoon Roll" slots into one show to make room for a new 12 noon - 1 pm Public Affairs hour.  The first 20 minutes of this new slot would be devoted to local news, followed by 10 minutes of specials like "In The Public Interest" and "Star date". The 12:30 - 1 pm slot would be reserved for locally produced public affairs shows.

The proposal also included the creation of a new afternoon music show; to be called Synthesis was warmly received by the staff. Although this new show would take the place of both Midday Fuse and Afternoon Roll, most of the staff thought it was worth it.  The ECOM hoped the Synthesis should emphasize fusion and world music, and other styles of music that weren't being played elsewhere in our schedule.  In essence, it was to be "the alternative's alternative".

  The original hosts for Synthesis were Mark Rinas on Monday, John Ramsey on Tuesday, Michael Claire on Wednesday, and Carole Brosseau on Fridays.  Thursday was initially an open slot reserved for student hosts.  The new show first aired on November 3, 1980.

WWUH had always shied away from religious programs.  The consensus was that there were a number of other radio stations in the area that aired religious programming, so such programming was not “alternative”.  There was also the feeling over the years that religion was a personal thing, and that as such WWUH would not broadcast regular religious programs. Note that over the years a number of religious “specials” were aired, these were one time shows presented as part of a community celebration of such events as Quanza, Three Kings Day, etc.

A new Christian music show was proposed by a member of the community, and accepted with the understanding that the host would not be allowed to preach.  While listener reaction was very favorable, it wasn't long before the host started making religious commentaries on the air.  He was reminded several times that he sound “let the music” speak for him, but his commentaries quickly started sounding like sermons.  As a result, he was called into an ECOM meeting.  When he refused to stop preaching, his show was cancelled and his membership was revoked. 

Metropolitan Opera broadcasts started on December 6 and ran through April 21.  A strike that was settled just before the airdate might have forced the broadcast of recorded Operas for a good part of the season.  We received the opera through a pair of stereo telephone lines from the satellite down link at CPTV.  Although the Opera was available on several other stations that were audible in Hartford, many listeners preferred our strong stereo signal to the mono signal of WFCR in Amherst or the weak, noisy signal of Connecticut Public Radio's Middlefield transmitter.

          In the fall, we received a call from Elton John’s manager.  Elton was in town for show at the Hartford Civic Center, had been listening to WWUH all afternoon and had asked his manager to see if the station wanted to set up an interview with him.  Patty took the call and said as diplomatically as she could that while she was delighted that Mr. John liked the station, we would have to decline the offer of an interview. The manager didn’t want to take no for an answer and persisted, and Patty told him that we wouldn’t do the interview since it would most likely never make it on the air!  Patty did her best to explain that the station’s philosophy was to play alternative music, and that while WWUH had indeed played lots of Elton John’s music when he was an unknown artist, we had stopped playing his songs since he had become so successful.  Needless to say the manager was left speechless.

 When word got out to the staff that we had turned down an interview with Elton John, some though that we crazy.   There were divided opinions as to what we should have done with the interview.  Some folks thought that we should have done the interview and made someone play it on the air, while others thought that we should have taped it as a courtesy but not air it.  But, according to the minutes of a Sept.18 general meeting, most of the staff agreed with the decision not to compromise our programming principals, even for a famous artist such as Mr. John, was the correct one.  However, we did receive fallout from the decision from various record company reps in the weeks following the incident although quietly a number of record reps said that they had a new respect for WWUH’s independence.

          Several staff members returned from the annual National Student Broadcaster's Convention with the feeling that WWUH was "light years ahead" of the other stations in attendance.  Most of the other stations seemed quite commercial, and used commercial programming gimmicks on the air.  Many stations didn't seem to realize that they had a commitment to the community off campus as well as on.

          Program Guide subscriptions numbered about 650, with 1,000 additional guides distributed around the area by Jim Douglas.  Wendy Weichand was appointed Guide Editor in June.

          Volunteer Carol Brosseau, who spent months reorganizing both the rock and jazz libraries, was appointed acting Director of Development in November.

          Carol immediately went to work making plans for Marathon '81. This included the airing of carts asking listeners to submit designs for the new t-shirt.  Listener kits, consisting of a shirt, guide subscription and bumper sticker, were to be offered for a $25 donation.  A decision was made not to broadcast the bands that would perform at Marathon because it was felt to be too disruptive of our regular programming, and counter productive to the fund raising process. 

The T Shirt was tan without logo but front and back printed.  Lowercase call letters on front, drawing on back of old radio with different programming bubbles coming out of it.

          The decision making process about the color and design of the yearly T-shirt was always interesting when left to the staff and this year’s discussion of the  several different designs submitted for the 1981 shirt was no different.  The staff had voted 35 to 8 in favor of a black shirt over an orange shirt after a lengthy and somewhat heated debate.  The shirt offered in Marathon ’81 would be black with yellow balloons, with different types of programming written inside each balloon.  

          Underwriters on the books as of November were:  Capitol Record Shop (Wed. Gothics and Friday Morning Jazz), Fantasy Factory (Friday Gothics), India Assoc. of Greater Hartford (Geetanjali), Wagon Shed Restaurant (Monday Night Rub), Fisherman's Marker and Golden Realty (Cultura e Vida).

          Marissa Donza, class of ’81 wrote:

          “My very first radio stow was hosting FM On Toast in the Spring of ’80.  At that time those slots were very free-form but shortly after I started, one by one, every “Toast” turned into a morning Folk show.  So Tuesday stuck out like a sore thumb – or reather – “the middle finger” that it was . . . loud and raunchy and fileld with the rebellious punk music of the day; Elvix Costello, the Ramones, the Sex Pistols.  Well, one particularly frustinging morning after about two months of fielding request from folk fans who obviously weren’t listening, I christened my slot “The Folk-Off” show during a break!  Rob Banks, program Director, who happened to get into the office early that day, came into the studio and nervously told me that I couldn’t call my show that – too offensive or something. But it stuck, it captured the spirit of the show and the folk announcers were great sports throughout the duration of the show”.

          Dave Gardiner recounted another story from 1980:

          “I can remember being at a staff meeting and someone complaining about waking up to AC/DC at 6 am; over in the corner Marissa Donza was hiding her head saying “Was that me?”


Some of the major news stories in 1980 were:  Ronald Reagan elected president in Republican sweep (Nov. 4); six US embassy aides escape from Iran with Canadian help (Jan. 29); US breaks diplomatic ties with Iran (April 7); Eight US servicemen are killed and five are injured as helicopter and cargo plane collide in abortive desert raid to rescue American hostages in Teheran (April 25). Background: Iran Hostage Crisis; Iraqi troops hold 90 square miles of Iran after invasion; 8-year Iran-Iraq War begins (Sept. 19); F.B.I.'s undercover operation "Abscam" (for Arab scam) implicates public officials (Feb. 2);  US Supreme Court upholds limits on federal aid for abortions (June 30).

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