1981 Text

At the start of the year the ECOM consisted of:  Patty Kurlychek - General Manager, Andy Winters - Operations Director; Dale Maine, Acting Business Manager, Doug Maine - Community Affairs Directors, Tina Podlowski -Director of Development; Sue Terry-Program Director; John Ramsey-Chief Engineer.

Other managers included Paul Robertson, Marissa Donza, Teri Kuchmeroski as Music Director, Brian Killany as Scheduler, Jeff Blanchette, Rob Meehan-Classical Director; Wendy Weichand as Guide Editor, Gary Brenner, Tracy Leuteritz-Traffic Director; Mary Anderson-News Director and Daniel Steeves-Production Director.

          Candidates for the spring ECOM elections were given the opportunity to speak about their platforms at an April Meeting.

          For the second time in four years, there were two candidates planning on running for the position of General Manager, both very qualified, both with substantial staff support.  General Manager candidate Dale Maine said that he wanted to see an emphasis put on public affairs programming.  He wanted to improve communication with President Trachtenberg and the Administration and work for a conclusion to the WTIC classical library situation.  He also wanted to work towards the purchase of a new transmitter in '82 or '83.  

          Tina Podlodowski, who was also running for General Manager, said that she was very disillusioned with the staff of the station.  She felt that the staff tended to forget that the ECOM was made up of students who were still learning the job of management and that they weren't professionals and that they did need advice.  She urged the staff to get more involved, to attend more meetings, and to look beyond just their own shows to the greater good of the station.  She then surprised everyone and announced that she was withdrawing her petition to run for G.M. because of another campus job offer!

          Operations Director candidate Andy Winters said that he was very committed to the station.  He looked forward to a second year as Operations Director and wanted to work towards increasing the station's coverage and influence in the community.

          Sue Terry, who was running for the position of Program Director, said that radio had been an influential part of her life for years and that she felt that her years listening to and participating in WWUH would give her some insight into the P.D. job.  Expansion of the public affairs programming was an important concern, and she hoped to help dispel some of the staff apathy by motivating people.

          John Ramsey, who was running again for the position of Chief Engineer, said that he would be thrilled to be elected for another term, and he assured the staff that even with his new full time employment at WCCC, his first priority would always be WWUH.

          Doug Kimelman, candidate for the Director of Development position, spoke of expanding our already excellent Public Affairs show line up.  Community ascertainment would be used as a guide to create new shows addressing the needs of the listening area.

          The election resulted in the following appointments:  Dale Maine-General Manager, Andy Winters-Operations Director, Sue Terry-Program Director, John Ramsey-Chief Engineer, and Doug Kimelman -Director of Community Affairs.  There were 13 voting members present at the election meeting out of 16 qualified members.

          As General Manager, Dale Maine brought to the table a huge commitment to the station along with a down to earth approach to management and practically infinite patience. These were just some of the traits that made him a successful leader.

          Andy Winter’s outgoing personality, organizational skills and energy made him an idea Operations Director.

          Sue Terry’s compassionate personality and musical knowledge made her an excellent Program Director.  She could talk to anyone about anything and she quickly gained the respect of the staff.

          Doug Maine knew how important the station’s Public Affairs programming was to the local community and his commitment to journalistic excellence and balanced programming are just some of the things that made 1981 an excellent year for public affairs programming on WWUH.

          The re-election of John Ramsey meant that he could continue with his plan for improving the station’s technical facilities.

Paul Robertson was appointed Music Director in May, but he resigned in August.  Marissa Donza was then appointed Music Director.  Both of them had their hands full coping with the ever increasing amount of new releases arriving at the station, and dealing with the frustrating problems that have always seemed to face us such as keeping the library in order, returning phone calls promptly, and dealing with the record theft situation.

Program Director Sue Terry resigned from the Program Director position in September.

Station Manger Dale Maine continued a dialog with University President Stephen Joel Trachtenberg started by Patty Kurlycheck a year earlier about getting non-students at WWUH the vote.  In an exchange of letters with SJT, Dale explored the president’s thoughts about giving active community volunteers at WWUH a vote in station elections.  Despite his best efforts, Dale was unable to get Trachtenberg to agree. While the president was not against community volunteers participating in WWUH he felt that the leadership of the station (and control thereof) should remain in the hands of students “as a benefit” of being a student. 

          Andy Winters was a good fit for the Operations Director position He had good managerial skills and was someone who could get things done.  When he resigned at the end of the school year in June Chris Watson took over and immediately went to work. Chris was also ideally suited to the OD job, he could troubleshoot problems quickly, whether they were technical or procedural, and he was particularly adept at helping to improve staff moral.

          Wendy Weichand was appointed Guide Editor and lent a professional touch to the production of the Guide. The cover of the January issue of the Program Guide was dedicated in the memory of John Lennon who has been murdered on December 8th. The issue featured the lyrics of the song “Imagine” on the cover, and Wendy wrote a eulogy that was featured inside.

The January issue of the Guide included excerpts from Lorenzo Milam’s book “Sex and Broadcasting. Subjects included “How to Terrorize Your Local Broadcaster” which explained how to get commercial broadcasters to be more responsive to their local communities by looking in their public file and “Using the Fairness Doctrine to get on the air”.  Another article, written by volunteer Dan King, was entitled “Who Owns Broadcasting?”  The article focused on the broadcasting industry, and the deregulation being considered by Congress.

WWUH was voted BEST RADIO STATION in the Hartford Advocate in September.  This was the first time that the Advocate had a “Best Of” section and was a triumph for the station.  In fact, WWUH won “Best Radio Station”, as opposed to “Best College Station,” a category that the Advocate do not have in 1981. The title provided no distinction between commercial and college station so we were in the running along with the large commercial stations in the area.  We were given advance notice of the award, allowing us time to place a quarter page ad in the BEST OF issue thanking the readers for voting us number one and promoting our alternative programming.

          We heard that our winning the “Best Station” award angered a number of the commercial stations, including those who were regular Advocate advertisers.  As a result, the Advocate created a “Best College Station” category to go along with the “Best Radio Station” category.

          Nationally, 1981 was a year that saw a renewed interest on the part of the FCC in indecency.  The ECOM studied the issues carefully and decided that our Public Affairs programs fell under the F.C.C.'s exemption for programs of a "scientific, medical, legal, etc." nature.  The consensus was that "Dirty" words presented as part of a responsibly presented news or public affairs program should pose no problem for us both because they were exempt from the law and because they were easily justified.  Entertainment show announcers were urged by the ECOM to be careful of musical lyrics containing the "seven dirty words".  Songs where such words were easily recognized should not be played when children were likely to be in the audience, which the ECOM defined as between the hours of 6 and 12 midnight.  No WWUH announcer was allowed to say the words on the air. 

          The ECOM was always concerned about commercialism on the air and as a result the station’s underwriting policy was modified in August eliminating the line describing of the business.  Underwriting announcements, given twice an hour, would contain the name of the business and the street address, city and state. The multitude of different underwriting rates for different shows and time slots were also eliminated and replaced them with a single, flat $10 per hour fee.  It was felt that even with the extra low rates overnight ($2 per hour) based on experience few people would be interested in underwriting those shows.    

The station’s Community Affairs Department kept up the tradition of excellence by presenting a series of special programs in 1981.

The political situation in El Salvador was the subject of a number of programs during the year.  A special two-hour live program on Ek Salvador was aired in an afternoon Synthesis slot.  Moderated by George Michael Evica, the program featured several local professors and the head of the US State Department Working Group on El Salvador, who appeared on the show via telephone from Washington.   People listening to the show heard a thorough discussion of the crisis, with the Administration’s point of view being offered by the State Department spokesman. 

About 90 minutes into the show the spokesman was asked the following question by Dr. Evica:  “Has the US State Department ruled out the murder of one or more of the El Salvador’s political leaders as a possible solution to the crisis?”  Dr. Evica had tossed out the question expecting a “stock” answer, but he, and the many people tuned in to 91.3 at the time, were shocked when the State Department’s spokesman responded that "murder had not been ruled out!”  This meant that the State Department was considering the assassination of foreign leaders, something that was a violation of US Law.   Moments after this statement was made on the air by the State Department official, the telephone call was interrupted by a series of clicks and the line went dead.  Attempts to raise the gentleman from the State Department continued for close to an hour to no avail.  The spokesman would not take our call!  Coverage of the crisis in El Salvador continued with the broadcast of a campus forum on the situation in April.

Later in the year, Professor Evica moderated another in-studio forum, this on the safety of the nuclear power plants in Connecticut owned by Northeast Utilities.  The live program was heavily promoted and aired in an afternoon Synthesis time slot to get maximum exposure.  Participating in the program were two members of the Union for Concerned Scientists, a group that had questioned the safety of the Millstone plants, and two representatives from Northeast Utilities; a director of nuclear operations and a senior engineer of the Millstone One plant.

The program focused on the alarming number of plant incidents that had been reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the last few years, and the fact that the plants had received unprecedented reprimands and fines from the NRC for safety violations at both Millstone and their sister Connecticut Yankee atomic power plant in Haddam.

Toward the end of the program, the NU engineer referred to the reactor containment dome as being the “first and only line” of defense should the reactor experience a “worst case” loss of coolant accident, which he said would result in a build up of highly radioactive steam to a pressure in excess of 2,000 pounds per square inch inside the dome.  He was asked by one of the reactor safety experts if the dome had ever been tested to this pressure, and the NU spokesman said in a condescending voice “of course, we can’t do that”. Surprised by the flippant answer, Dr. Evica asked if any pressurization testing had ever been performed on the dome at the plant.  NU engineer confirmed that pressure tests were routinely conducted, and that the dome had been tested to a pressure of 20 pounds per square inch.  When challenged as to why they only tested the dome to 1/100th of what would be experienced in an actual accident, the NU spokesman replied “because we don’t want to damage the dome”!  Realizing how bad that sounded, both NU employees got up and walked out of the studio while the show as on the air live leaving the remaining participant’s, and more than a few listeners, dumbfounded.

Like most cities in the northeast, Hartford had experienced a crisis of unaffordable housing during the decade.   WWUH addressed the problem by adding the "Housing Crunch", a half hour weekly public affairs show dealing with housing issues and hosted by John Merino in March. This show, which aired in the noon public affairs slot, would be a mainstay of WWUH’s daytime public affairs programming for a number of years.

Volunteer John Merino also produced a five-part, locally produced forum on Housing Issues which aired in November. He was joined by co-hosts Abigail Sullivan from the Hartford Courant, Mary Messina from The Herald and Cynthia Jones from The Hartford Advocate. Guests included the State Commissioner on Housing, the directors of various neighborhood housing services and representatives from Housing Code Enforcement programs from several area towns, including Hartford.  The program generated a considerable amount of press.

The ECOM turned down an offer from Real Art Ways (RAW) to broadcast a 48-hour special on artist/musician John Cage. They were intrigued by the idea, but considered it to be too disruptive to the station's schedule, especially considering that the broadcasts would take place over a weekend and displace a significant amount of the unique specialty programs.   The ECOM came back with an offer to do a program of a more realistic length, such as four hours, but RAW was not interested.  According to the minutes of an ECOM meeting director of Real Art Way, was disgusted when informed of our decision!

The station sponsored a Woman's Radio Conference on March 21, attended by 14 people from the community who came to learn more about WWUH and the Hartford Woman's Radio Collective, based at the station. 

          General Manager Dale Maine tried something very different on the Thursday at noon slot.  He was the host of a new program called "The Editorial Page".  The program focused on a single issue of public interest each week and followed a call-in format.  Many of the callers asked about various aspects of WWUH operations.

          KPFA, the Pacifica station in San Francisco, expressed an interest in syndicating our Assassination Journal program.

          The ECOM considered a proposal to expand the weekday evening public affairs slot to two hours from one.  The proposal would have had Public Affairs from 8-10 pm, Accent on Jazz from 10 pm - 2 am, and Gothics from 2 am - 6 am.  This was found to be unacceptable for several reasons, including the loss of the All Night Show, a prime training ground for new announcers, the difficulty of finding Jazz hosts who could do the new shift, and the difficulty of finding Gothic announcers who wanted to come in at 2 am to do a four hour show.

“In The Public Interest” was the name of a 3-minute commentary that the station had received for free for years from the Fund for Peace in Washington, DC.  Each episode of the program covered a different issue of public interest. Audience reaction to the short feature was consistently positive.  The syndicated short-form program “Mother Earth News” was also aired on a daily basis.

Doug Zimmerman, Community Affairs Director wrote in the April Guide:

“The environment, energy, unemployment, education, transportation, the concerns of the elderly and handicapped—these are important issues that touch us in one way or another, issues that alternative community radio (WWUH) should address.”

The summer saw WWUH continue the tradition of live broadcasts from Bushnell Park, although volunteer staff became less and less enthusiastic as the weeks wore on. Security staffing at the park had been cut back drastically and the city was beginning to experience its first gang problems which were quite visible on Monday nights at the park.  This was the station’s sixth continuous season of live broadcasts from Bushnell Park and the summer’s line up include performances by The Paul Jaffrey All Stars, Clifford Jordan, Bobby Kay Big Band, Toots Thiemann, Tito Puente and Pat Metheny.

The station, along with the host of the program "Son Burst" and the Inter-varsity Christian Fellowship, sponsored a concert featuring the band Abraham and Moses, on January 24 in Lincoln Theater.

Record theft had always been a problem in college radio, and WWUH was no exception.  The extent of the problem was very hard to measure since it was impossible to find a difference between a misfiled recording and one that was stolen.  On more than one accession a volunteer would release a verbal tirade at a General Meeting about a missing album only to be told by another staff member that the album had just been found misfiled in the library!

The ECOM had done research on the subject to see what other stations were doing to combat record theft:  Not surprisingly, they found that the problem was indeed universal, and that there was a wide range of things other stations had done to deal with it. 

Some stations thought that theft was inevitable and that it was the price that was paid when using a volunteer staff!  Other stations felt that the problem was directly related to staff moral.  The idea was that a better trained and motivated the staff, with people involved in doing more than “just their shows”, would be the less likely they would steal.  Some pundits even went so far as to say that if a record was stolen, it just proved that that recording was too popular for an alternative station like WWUH to play. 

The ECOM realized that they had to walk a fine line when dealing with the problem since it was assumed that only a small percentage of the staff was responsible for the losses. Accusations and drastic measures would only serve to poison the atmosphere and would not deter those who were set on stealing. There were as many proposed "solutions" to the problems as there were explanations of why it occurred.  Some stations locked up each genre’s library, and announcers would have to sign out a key at the college’s public safety office at the start of their show.   Other stations required that all announcers log an inventory or count of the records at the beginning and end of their shifts, something that was unpractical at WWUH since we had over 20,000 recordings. 

The ECOM discussed the record theft issue at a staff meeting. They reviewed some of the steps other stations had done to address the problem and asked for staff ideas.  Suggestions included our hiring of a full-time librarian to "check out" the records, and idea that was unpractical to say the least,  installing a retail store type "point of purchase" alarm which would cost thousands of dollars and allowing staff to borrow albums as they pleased! 

In the meeting the ECOM stressed to the staff that the fact of the matter was that once a record was lost, it was gone for good.  The thief was depriving not only the staff of the record but was stealing it from future listeners. Nearly everyone present at the meeting thought those caught stealing should be punished severely, with expulsion from the station as a minimum punishment, but some felt that having them arrested was too strict.  The ECOM chose to be very careful in dealing with the subject with the volunteer staff: often they felt that they were "preaching to the converted" when discussing the subject at staff meetings.  Obviously, only a small percentage of the staff would ever consider stealing from the station.   

Various methods were tried over the years in order to minimize the problem and/or catch those responsible.  These methods included:  peer pressure (asking other staffers to keep their eyes open), ensuring that all of the station recordings were clearly marked, surprise spot checks of announcers leaving the building, before and after inventories of the new bins and surveillance cameras in the hallways. Late in the year, the station’s staff voted to make mandatory arrest the station policy for persons caught stealing from the station and in the years ahead two staff members would be arrested for record theft.

The ECOM remained concerned about a university "media advisory board" that was being discussed on campus.  WWUH had always operated with a great deal of freedom and autonomy from the student government association which they had split from in the early seventies in an effort to ensure the station’s independence. Some media advisory boards at other colleges had been disasters and it was not unusual for these organizations, which tended to specialize campus issues, not to recognize the importance of stations like WWUH since they were used to dealing with media outlets whose only audience was on campus.   

At a general staff meeting in April, it was agreed that we would no longer give tickets away for or promote shows at a local rock club due to the club’s mistreatment of patrons, which was documented fully in an Advocate article, and witnessed by many WWUH volunteers.

          A rebuttal was submitted to the Hartford Courant for a March 13 article they ran about Connecticut Public Radio dropping their local news shows.  They quoted CPR General Manager as saying that they were the only station in the state playing Classical music.

          The Met Opera was aired from Dec  5 - April 17.  The introduction of the first broadcast of the season must have used the word “Texaco” at least a dozen times in five minutes and many staff members and listeners found this blatant commercialism objectionable. Letters of complaint were sent to Texaco and the Met Opera because of the promotional nature of the wording of sponsorship announcements aired during the Saturday broadcasts.  The wording was promptly changed.

          A proposal from the staff to change the FM on Toast slot from rock to Folk was received favorably by both the ECOM and the much of the staff.  Bill Domler and Joel Blument were already been doing morning FM on Toast shows so only three shows would need to be changed. This proposal was met with opposition from the rock staff since for many years the 6-9 am slot had featured primarily rock music.  The ECOM decided to make the change but agreed to respect the existing rock shows in those slots.  This meant that the change would be made on a show-by-show basis when the volunteer was no longer able to continue to do their show they would be replaced with someone who was willing to play folk and acoustic music.

Marathon '81 was scheduled from February 15 through February 2.  As was tradition, the event started and ended with Wayne Jones’ Rock and Roll Memory Machine on Sunday evening.

Planning for Marathon started about six months prior with the selection of the t-shirt.  Practically everyone on the ECOM was involved with getting ready for the event. This year, securing the mandatory liquor permit for the Marathon party in the pub was harder than ever due to changes in state law that involved such things as insurance certificates and inspections by the fire marshals office.

The week’s musical events included the kickoff party with the new wave band Modern Look, an open house with Albert Otis Blues Band on Tuesday, and an end-of-marathon party with Sue Terry's Jazz Ensemble.

          Andy Zelden once again came to the station's aid by helping to design Marathon ads for the Advocate.  Andy, who had joined the station in the mid-70s, remained a dedicated volunteer, helping with Marathon premiums and doing jazz fill-ins when called upon.

The statistics for Marathon 81 revealed the event brought in $24,998.00 in pledges and that the highest pledging show was UH Radio Bluegrass, hosted by Jim Douglas, which brought in $1555.00. The ECOM made a point of not being concerned with individual show totals as long as the announcer did his or her best and the goal for the week was met. However, sometimes individual totals became issues between various staff members or between genres.  The ECOM discouraged this but was unable to do anything about it.

The fact that Mort Fega’s Focus on Jazz marathon totals was bettered by another show, Leora Sparapani's Friday Morning Jazz was widely discussed by the staff.  Even though Leora bettered Mort’s total by only a bit, ($100 out of a total of $1369), many eyebrows were raised.

The first edition of the WWUH Operations Manual was presented to the ECOM by John Ramsey.   The manual listed various topics and policies in alphabetical order for easy access and had been created to aid in station training and to serve as a reference manual for the staff.

          Thanks to deregulation, the F.C.C. discontinued the issuance of the First Class License in August.  The first class license was replaced by a lifetime General Class license, and rules were also changed to eliminate license requirement for a station's chief engineer.  All operators, including the chief, were now required to have only the post card Restricted Permit!  The Commission wanted to leave the determination of the qualification of an engineer "up to the marketplace"!

          The license renewal came through on April 30th.

1981 was a busy year for WWUH engineering department. In April, John Ramsey accepted a full time job as Chief Engineer at WCCC in Hartford, requiring that he severely cut back on the time he could commit to the station.    Everyone was determined not to let this interfere with his plans for WWUH.  Paul Zulpa, who had been assistant Chief Engineer for nearly two years, graduated in May and moved out of state to take a job with IBM.  While these two events might have caused problems for the department, the station was fortunate to have student engineers Dave Viveiros and Dave Gardiner on the staff.  They took over most of the day to day engineering duties and since they both lived in the dorms they were never far away from the station should the chief engineer be unavailable when problems developed.

          Thanks to Marathon '81, funds were made available to purchase several pieces of equipment that would greatly improve air sound.  A new Harris limiter/stereo generator was installed in June, replacing equipment which had been given to us by WTIC year earlier.  A new Harris exciter was installed in the summer giving new life to the station's 20-year-old transmitter.  In the fall, a state of the art audiophile phono preamps was installed in the air studio.  These purchases, along with the associated engineering work, resulted in a dramatic improvement in the fidelity of the station's audio.

New counters and equipment were installed in the News Studio during fall by the station’s Engineering staff, allowing the stations newscasts to be broadcast from the newsroom, and for the newsroom to be used to produce news stories for later airplay, including those involving telephone interviews.

The audio quality of the Bushnell Park remote broadcasts was significantly better than in previous years thanks to a trade arrangement that was made with a local music shop to get new remote equipment in trade for underwriting.

          The summer's successful concert season wouldn't' have been possible without the assistance of General Manager Dale Maine and engineer Dave Gardiner.

At a special election held in October, the following ECOM positions were filled:  Andy Winters - Operations Director; Doug Kimmelman - Community Affairs; Lisa Polsky - Business Manager.  There were only seven voting staff members.    

          A proposal was presented to the ECOM for a new public affairs show, called “The Shortwave Alternative”.  The goal of the program was to provide the listening public with a glimpse of what the news sounded like when presented by the broadcast stations of other countries.  This would be accomplished through the use of a special receiver to pick up, live, international shortwave broadcast stations and retransmitting them on the air.  The ECOM gave the approval and the producer went to work contacting shortwave stations in other countries.  The goal was to pick stations that represented a broad political spectrum of opinions, but at the same time he had to stick with stations with signals strong enough to be of broadcast quality.  The list was quickly narrowed down to the BBC, Radio Moscow, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, KOL Israel, Radio South Africa, The Deutche Welle, Radio Havana Cuba, the Voice of America (VOA) and Radio Switzerland.

          The FCC rules specifically stated that rebroadcasting the signals of foreign broadcasters was legal, and that no prior permission was required. However, since the Voice of America was a domestic station, we would have to receive written permission from them before we could retransmit their programming on WWUH.

          In addition to writing to the VOA, letters were sent to the other eight stations as a courtesy informing them of our intent to rebroadcast their transmissions.

          Seven of the stations responded with letters of encouragement. Some, like the BBC, has a list of rebroadcasting conditions, such as requiring their World News to be broadcast live, which was not a problem.  The News Director at the North American Service of the CBC called informing us that the CBC was experiencing a strike by union workers, and that he could not approve a rebroadcast without the infinitesimal risk (his phrase) of it hampering the labor negotiations.  The gentleman stressed how wonderful the idea was and how everyone there was thrilled that a station in the US would like to rebroadcast their news programming.  He concluded the conversation by saying that he could not stop us from doing so and that since our own FCC did not require us to get CBC’s permission, that it would be OK with him!

          Believe it or not, it was our own Voice of America that refused to grant us permission to rebroadcast their programming. They sent a single paragraph letter vaguely referring to some federal law that prohibited retransmission of VOA programming in the US.  Since many of the high power VOA transmitters are located in the US, and their programming can be clearly heard at any time of the day or night in the US on the shortwave bands, it seemed strange that there would be a law forbidding domestic retransmission.  A bit of research revealed that when the US Information Agency, of which the VOA is a part, was created just after World War II, Congress wrote into the Charter a prohibition against “domestic dissemination” of USIA products in order to ensure that the agency would never be used as a propaganda tool against US citizens.

          The Shortwave Alternative aired on Thursday evenings at 8 pm for a number of years.  Listener reaction was quite positive, although occasionally someone would complain about Radio Moscow being carried.  These callers uniformly asked why we weren’t balancing the programming with our own Voice of America, and they were shocked to find out that doing so was illegal! 

The ECOM approved the program and it appeared on the air in December.

The station once again manned a checkpoint at the March of Dimes Walkathon in the spring.

The syndicated program “Soundings,” produced by the National Humanities Council was aired on Tuesdays at noon. Some of the shows aired in May were “Education and the National Economy”, “Teaching Standards” and “Classroom Laboratories”

Significant International and national events in1981 included: US-Iran agreement frees 52 hostages held in Teheran since 1979 (Jan. 20); hostages welcomed back in US (Jan. 25). Background: Iran Hostage Crisis; Pope John Paul II wounded by gunman (May 14); Israel annexes the disputed Golan Heights territory (Dec. 14); Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat is assassinated by Islamic extremists during a military parade in Cairo (Oct. 6).; President Hilla Limann is overthrown in Ghana as Jerry J. Rawlings seizes power; Ronald Reagan takes oath as 40th President (Jan. 20); President Reagan wounded by gunman, with press secretary and two law-enforcement officers (March 30); US Supreme Court rules, 4–4, that former President Nixon and three top aides may be required to pay damages for wiretap of home telephone of former national security aide (June 22); Reagan nominates Judge Sandra Day O'Connor, 51, of Arizona, as first woman on US Supreme Court (July 7); Air controllers strike, disrupting flights (Aug. 3); government dismisses strikers (Aug. 11).

Website Builder